Sunday, March 29, 2020

Yes Minister Is A Successful Satire. Discuss. Essays -

Yes Minister Is A Successful Satire. Discuss. The British comedy Yes Minister is a brilliant satire in which the characters are creatively manipulated to form a humorous program. It deals with the wheeling and dealing of political life behind the scenes and attempts to expose its true nature. Although the series is set within the British political scene, it deals with political games and clashes between politicians and the civil service that could be found almost anywhere in the world. Yes Minister started airing in 1980 on BBC 2 with each episode running for about 30 minutes. With its astounding success it ran for six years until Jim Hacker finally became what he always dreamt of throughout the course of the series: Prime Minister. At this point the BBC started a new series called Yes Prime Minister. The series is still shown on television today and people continue to enjoy the satirical British humour. In the third season of Yes Minister and for the first time on 11 November 1982, two years into the series, ran an episode called Equal Opportunities. As its title suggests it encompasses the issues to do with Equal Employment Opportunities, focusing on the Civil Services and their attitudes towards women in the workforce. As in other episodes of Yes Minister, Equal Opportunities aims to educate and summon change, while simultaneously entertaining the audience it is targeted towards. Clever incorporation of a variety of different types of humour creates a jovial fa?ade for the underlying issues. In Equal Opportunities it has allowed the exploration of each sexes emotions and thoughts towards each other in the workforce. A twist of irony occurs when Sarah announces that she is leaving the civil services. She explains to Jim Hacker that she wants a job that will appreciate her as a person and where she personally can achieve things and therefore has accepted a job at a merchant bank. She is absolutely not charmed by the fact that she would be part of a 25% quota and does not appreciate being patronised: Quite honestly, Minister, I want a job where I dont spend endless hours circulating information that isnt relevant, about subjects that dont matter to people who arent interested. I want a job where there is achievement rather than merely activity. I am tired of pushing paper. I want to be able to point to something and say: I did that. Sarcasm is used to cunningly say what is really meant without saying it straight out. What it does say straight out often defiantly contradicts its true meaning: We must, in my view, always have the right to promote the best man for the job, regardless of sex. Sir Humphrey makes out that hes being fair but by calling everyone man and then saying regardless of sex it appears as a contradiction. The use of dialogue allows the viewer a deeper insight into the characters involved in the show. While the male characters in Yes Minister deny being sexist and claim to be looking out for the best interests of women in the workforce, it is obvious through their use of sexist dialogue that this is not the case. Terms such as feminist touch and dear lady are frequently used when referring to women throughout the script. Sir Humphrey often uses circumlocution to confuse the issues. Euphemisms are used by many of the Public Servants involved to get around an issue or to make the issue sound better than what it really is: a pause to regroup, a lull in which to reassess the situation and discuss alternative strategies, a space of time for the mature reflection and deliberation. Yes, you mean drop the whole scheme. Attitudes of people who work in the Public Services are cross-examined and mocked. It is shown that many of the people within the Public Services are lazy, only care about their own success, and believe that advancements happen as a matter of turn: Minister! It takes time to do things! This plays on the fact that because so many people in the Services are caught up doing useless things or are so slow and lazy, it takes a long time to achieve anything major. Jim Hacker mentions Alexander the Great ruling at a very young age,

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Old Testament Essays - Religion, Enma Eli, Mythology, Free Essays

Old Testament Essays - Religion, Enma Eli, Mythology, Free Essays Old Testament The Old Testament is a compilation, and like every compilation it has a wide variety of contributors who, in turn, have their individual influence upon the final work. It is no surprise, then, that there exist certain parallels between the Enuma Elish, the cosmogony of the Babylonians, and the Book of Genesis, the first part of the Pentateuch section of the Bible. In fact, arguments may be made that other Near Eastern texts, particularly Sumerian, have had their influences in Biblical texts. The extent of this 'borrowing', as it were, is not limited to the Bible; the Enuma Elish has its own roots in Sumerian mythology, predating the Enuma Elish by nearly a thousand years. A superficial examination of this evidence would erroneously lead one to believe that the Bible is somewhat a collection of older mythology re-written specifically for the Semites. In fact, what develops is that the writers have addressed each myth as a separate issue, and what the writers say is that their God surpasses every other. Each myth or text that has a counterpart in the Bible only serves to further an important idea among the Hebrews: there is but one God, and He is omnipotent, omniscient, and other-worldly; He is not of this world, but outside it, apart from it. The idea of a monotheistic religion is first evinced in recorded history with Judaism, and it is vital to see that instead of being an example of plagiarism, the Book of Genesis is a meticulously composed document that will set apart the Hebrew God from the others before, and after. To get a clear picture of the way the Book of Genesis may have been formed (because we can only guess with some degree of certainty), we must place in somewhere in time, and then define the cultures in that time. The influences, possible and probable, must be illustrated, and then we may draw our conclusions. If we trace back to the first appearance of the Bible in written form, in its earliest translation, we arrive at 444 B.C.. Two texts, components of the Pentateuch referred to as 'J' and 'E' texts, can be traced to around 650 B.C. Note that 'J' refers to Yahweh (YHVH) texts, characterized by the use of the word 'Yahweh' or 'Lord' in accounts; 'E' refers to Elohist texts, which use, naturally, 'Elohim' in its references to God.1 But 650 B.C. isn't our oldest reference to the 'J' and 'E' texts; they can be traced, along with the other three strands of the Pentateuch, to at least 1000 B.C. Our first compilation of these strands existed in 650 B.C.. We must therefore begin our search further back in time. We can begin with the father of the Hebrew people, Abraham. We can deduce when he lived, and find that he lived around 1900 B.C. in ancient Mesopotamia2. If we examine his world and its culture, we may find the reasons behind certain references in Genesis, and the mythologies they resemble. The First Babylonian Dynasty had begun around 1950 B.C. and would last well into the late 16th century B.C.. The Babylonians had just conquered a land previously under the control of the Assyrians, and before that, the Summering. Abraham had lived during a time of great prosperity and a remarkably advanced culture. He was initially believed to have come from the city of Ur, as given in the Bible as "...the Ur of Chaldees". Earlier translations read, however, simply "...Land of the Chaldees"; later, it was deduced that Abraham had come from a city called Haran3. In any case, he lived in a thriving and prosperous world. Homes were comfortable, even luxurious. Copies of hymns were found next to mathematical tablets detailing formulae for extracting square and cube roots.4 The level of sophistication 4000 years ago is remarkable. We can also deduce that it was a relatively stable and peaceful society; its art is characterized by the absence of any warlike activity, paintings or sculptures.5 We also have evidence of an Israelite tribe, the Benjamites, in Babylonian texts. The Benjamites were nomads on the frontier of its boundaries, and certainly came in contact with Babylonian ideas- culture, religion, ethics. The early tribes of Israel were nomadic, "taking with them the early traditions, and in varying latitudes have modified it"6 according to external influences. The message remained constant, but the context would subtly change. In addition to the Benjamites in Mesopotamia, there were tribes of Israel in Egypt during the Egyptian Middle Kingdom period7, which certainly exposed these people to Egyptian culture

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Strategic Choice and Analysis Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Strategic Choice and Analysis - Assignment Example Stephen Haines' Centre for Strategic Management has built a new strategic planning system based on systems thinking and calls it the 21st Century Yearly Strategic Management System and Cycle. This system moves beyond planning into implementation. It includes a Plan-to-Plan phase and a Plan-to-Implement phase. The steps include team building and leadership skill building as part of the planning. It also includes a parallel process whereby all key stakeholders are involved based on the premise that 'People support what they help create'. This process starts with a Futuristic Environmental Scan and defines the ideal vision in terms of mission, values and end outcomes that the organization wishes to set for itself. Only after the statement of such Ideal Future a Current State assessment based on SWOT is taken up to identify the gaps and make strategies to close the gap.As a result of their clients adopting this model, it was found that clients began developing the competitive edge and th e organization was much clearer on what their competitive "positioning" in market place was and found themselves moving positively in that direction, to the delight of their customers.(Haines,2004).Thus this process leans directly into the process of competitive strategy making as it includes environmental scan both-present and future and enables movement in the desired direction. However this system's parallel process is a very critical aspect and strategic management literature has a common view that good strategies grow out of ideas that have been floating around the firm, and initiatives that have been taken by all sorts of people in the firm. This resource must be drawn upon as frequently as required even in competitive strategy making. Thus a company's competitive strategy would concern primarily with its actions and plans for competing successfully - its specific and focused efforts to please clients, its offensive and defensive maneuvers to counter similar efforts of rivals, its responses to prevailing market conditions, and its initiatives to strengthen and improve its market position. Types of Competitive Strategies The generic competitive strategies and their standard objectives have been given in numerous strategic management literatures to include the following: (a) Overall Low-Cost Leadership Strategy: Its primary object is to find a sustainable cost advantage over rivals, using lower-cost edge as a basis either to under-price rivals and reap market share gains or earn higher profit margin by selling at going price. (b) Broad Differentiation Strategy: Its primary objective is to incorporate differentiating features that cause buyers to prefer firm's product or service over rival brands. Looking on the obverse side it implies that an organization must find ways to differentiate that create value for buyers and that such ways should not be amenable to easy copying and matching by rivals. An important differentiation strategy is not to spend more than the chargeable price premium, ever to achieve differentiation. This is in fact the theoretical

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Effect of the Charities Act 2006 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Effect of the Charities Act 2006 - Essay Example The Statute of Elizabeth, referred by many to as The Statute of Charitable Uses 1601 was the first legal conception of the charities trust. The Act defined charity in its preamble as, land, profits, and goods set aside for the benefit of the society from soldiers to school going children and the poor and elderly1. The Mortmain and Charitable Use Act 1888 changed a lot of the Statute of Elizabeth but maintained the introductory part of charities as per the Act. In a court ruling in the Goodman v Saltash Corporation [1882] 7 App Cas 633 case, the court was in favor that, goods were given to people in a town or village as charitable2. The Charities Act 1960 revoked all the previous statutes on charities leaving the interpretation of the term charities to fall under the purview of the law of England and Wales. Â  The designation of a charitable organization in the United Kingdom’s statute law, according to the Charities Act 2006, is an institution whose establishment is for charitable purposes alone. Some of the charitable purposes according to the Act include; the advancement of education, religion, and prevention of poverty. The charitable purposes also include the advancement of citizenship, health, animal welfare, arts, culture, heritage, and amateur sport, among others3. However, for the purposes of convenience in classifying the aims of charity, Lord Macnaghten in 1891 when ruling the Commissioners for Special Income Tax v Pemsel [1891] AC 531 case put the aims under four heads. These heads are; the reprieve of poverty, the advancement of education, the advancement of religion, and any purposes that are of benefit to society4. In order for an organization to be fully a charitable organization, one ought to be able to identify benefits rising from organizations to the advantag e of the society.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Expression of TDP43 in Development of ALS Model Zebrafish

Expression of TDP43 in Development of ALS Model Zebrafish Change in expression of TDP43 in various organs during development of ALS model zebrafish. Anuj Dhoj Raut Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the devastating motor neuron disease that is characterized by progressive degeneration of both upper and lower motor neuron that control voluntary movement of body. The degeneration of the neurons seen in ALS result in muscle weakness, spasticity and atrophy of both cranial and spinal nerves muscle groups. Since there is often respiratory muscle involvement, aspiration pneumonia is the most common cause of death for the patients with ALS. At present, ALS is invariably fatal disease with no absolute cure and patients usually die within 3-5 years after the clinical onset of symptoms. The mean age of onset of ALS is between 55 and 65 years with slightly more prevalence in male (Male: Female ratio ~ 1.5:1) (1). Even though, incidence rate of ALS are different in different countries of the world, globally average annual incident rate is between 1.5 and 2.5 per 100,000 populations. There has been an increase in death rate of ALS and current internatio nal death rates for ALS have be close to 1 per 100,000 population per year(1). Currently, riluzole, an inhibitor of glutamate release, is the only disease modifying treatment available for the disease and can extends life only for couple of months (2,3). The etiology of ALS is currently unknown. However, approximately 10% of ALS patients have family history for ALS (Familial ALS;FALS) and remaining 90% of case occur sporadically (Sporadic ALS; SALS)(4). Although definitive evidence for environmental factor that cause ALS has remain mostly unknown, the evidence of genetic alternation that cause ALS has been increasing. Till date, only known cause of ALS is mutation in the gene. Mutations in more than 13 different types of genes have already been identified that can cause FALS. FALS is often a Mendelian inheritance with high penetrance, although most cases are autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, autosomal recessive pedigrees have also been reported (5,6). Even though, FALS are cause due to genetic alternation, FALS are indistinguishable from SALS form histopathological perspective and both the types’ presents with similar sign and symptoms, thus suggesting common intra-cellular processes that lead to the disease symptoms. Among those 13 different types of gene mutation that causes FALS, mutation in Transactive response DNA binding Protein 43kDa (TDP-43) gene is seen in approximately 4% of FALS and 2% of SALS (7). Transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) is a DNA/RNA-binding protein encode by the TARDBP gene on chromosome 1. TDP-43 is an ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein capable of shutting between the nucleus and cytoplasm (8). TDP43 is present in almost all the tissue of a body and have different roles in different tissues (9). Although the precise cellular function of TDP-43 is unknown, TDP-43 has been implicated in regulating of gene transcription (9),alternative exon splicing (10) and mRNA stability (11). Under normal physiological conditions, TDP-43 resides predominantly in the nucleus where it involved in gene expression. But, in abnormal pathological conditions such as ALS, TDP-43 is mislocalized in the cytoplasm as inclusions body (12,13) . Analysis of TDP-43 in the brain and spinal cord of ALS patients reveled that TDP-43 is pathologically modified and redistribution to the cytoplasm, which is accompanied by loss of normal nuclear function and a toxic gain-of-function in the cytoplasm (14,15). The mislocalization of TDP-43 into cytoplasm is believed to be cause of neuron loss in ALS patients. Moreover, TDP-43 positive inclusions are also found either independent or partially colocalize with the other characteristic inclusion, such as tau, ÃŽ ±-synuclei, ÃŽ ²-amyloid and polyglutamines, which are found in other neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer’s disease, Pick disease and Parkinson’s disease. Interestingly, TDP-43 positive cytoplasmic inclusion are found in almost all ALS patient along with other neurodegenerative disease (16). Although evidence suggest that there is a definitive association between ALS and TDP-43, above observations make it confusing to whether TDP-43 pathology is causative or a secondary response in this disease. Studies done to unravel if TDP-43 is pathology or secondary response to ALS have come with conflicting result. Moreover, the present of TDP-43 in inclusion body of another neurodegenerative has been a mystery. The precise role of TDP-43 in ALS and other neurodegenerative disease is not well known and needs further evaluation. Study, in the mouse has shown that TDP-43 protein is essential for normal prenatal development. Homozygous loss of TDP-43 in mouse cause early embryo death. But, in heterozygous loss TDP-43 mouse, the TDP-43 protein levels were nearly normal suggesting an auto-regulatory mechanism controlling this protein levels(17,18). Moreover, research on mRNA expression levels of TDP-43 protein in various tissues has shown that TDP-43 plays different roles in different tissue(9). Furthermore, about 40 different mutant in TDP-43 have already been identified so far that is associated with ALS (10). But all this various types of mutations in TDP43 have only affected motor nerve of spinal cord and brain. At the same time, mutation and/or overexpression of TDP-43 has not cause any pathology alternation in other cells and tissue of the body or has been found to be associated with diseases of other organ system. A protein that is so vital for a development of organisms that it’s absent cause deat h, but when there is mutation in its gene has only abnormalities in nervous system and that abnormalities are evidence after mid-life is yet to be understood. Moreover, within the nervous system mutation in TDP-43 seems to affect only motor neuron and at the same time spares other neuron such as sensory, autonomic nervous system. And this preference to the motor neuron by mutant TDP-43 is even seen till the late stage of the disease. Physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons is yet to be fully understand. Causative link between TDP-43 positive inclusion and ALS can be well established, if nuclear to cytoplasmic expression of mutant TDP-43 could be study in vivo and in real time. And at the same time, will also be able to understand if TDP-43 pathology is causative or a secondary response to ALS and other neurodegenerative disease. Transgenic rodent models of ALS have been extremely valuable in providing some insight into biological mechanisms underlying ALS. But, due to difficulty in conducting in vivo real time study with rodent, change in intra cellular expression of TDP-43 has not being well understand. The zebrafish has recently emerged as powerful genetic model system for studying ALS. External development and transparency make it great tool to study the development stages of almost all the organ. External development of its eggs allows easy observation and manipulation of early development process. And, transparency makes is a powerful tool to observe the change at cellular level by using fluorescent reporters. With the help of fluorescent reporter, specific cell type and protein expression within those cells can be easily identify and study in vivo and in real time in zebrafish. In addition, zebrafish is a vertebrate and their nervous system is highly conserved with higher vertebrates including humans a nd many pertinent feature of the nervous system start to develop within 1 day of development. Moreover, genetic manipulations are comparatively easy in zebrafish. Therefore, zebrafish is a great model system to study the association of TDP-43 and ALS. In this study, I am trying to understand the change in expression of mutant and overexpressed TDP-43 protein in different tissue of zebrafish. At the same time also will be evaluating the change in expressions of TDP-43 as the zebrafish grow from embryo to adult. I will then compare the change in level of TDP-43 from asymptomatic stage of ALS zebrafish to that of symptomatic stage of ALS zebrafish. In order to conduct this experiment, transgenic zebrafish with human mutant TDP-43 will be created by genetic engineering. Human mutant TDP-43 will be fused with green florescent protein (GFP) before creating transgenic zebrafish. By combining human mutant TDP-43 with GFP will allow easy visualization of TDP-43 protein in zebrafish. Then, image of the fluorescent labeled TDP-43 at different stage of development of zebrafish period will be capture with fluorescent microscope. References 1.Logroscino, G., Traynor, B., Hardiman, O., Couratier, P., Mitchell, J., Swingler, R., and Beghi, E. (2008) Descriptive epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: new evidence and unsolved issues. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery Psychiatry 79, 6-11 2.Bensimon, G., Lacomblez, L., and Meininger, V. (1994) A controlled trial of riluzole in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ALS/Riluzole Study Group. The New England journal of medicine 330, 585-591 3.Miller, R., Mitchell, J., Lyon, M., and Moore, D. (2007) Riluzole for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/motor neuron disease (MND). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1 4.Pasinelli, P., and Brown, R. H. (2006) Molecular biology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: insights from genetics. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7, 710-723 5.Mulder, D. W., Kurland, L. T., Offord, K. P., and Beard, C. M. (1986) Familial adult motor neuron disease: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurology 36, 511-517 6.Gros-Louis, F., Gaspar, C., and Rouleau, G. A. (2006) Genetics of familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biochimica et biophysica acta 1762, 956-972 7.Corrado, L., Ratti, A., Gellera, C., Buratti, E., Castellotti, B., Carlomagno, Y., Ticozzi, N., Mazzini, L., Testa, L., and Taroni, F. (2009) High frequency of TARDBP gene mutations in Italian patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Human mutation 30, 688-694 8.Winton, M. J., Igaz, L. M., Wong, M. M., Kwong, L. K., Trojanowski, J. Q., and Lee, V. M.-Y. (2008) Disturbance of nuclear and cytoplasmic TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) induces disease-like redistribution, sequestration, and aggregate formation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 283, 13302-13309 9.Ou, S., Wu, F., Harrich, D., Garcà ­a-Martà ­nez, L. F., and Gaynor, R. B. (1995) Cloning and characterization of a novel cellular protein, TDP-43, that binds to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TAR DNA sequence motifs. Journal of virology 69, 3584-3596 10.Lagier-Tourenne, C., Polymenidou, M., and Cleveland, D. W. (2010) TDP-43 and FUS/TLS: emerging roles in RNA processing and neurodegeneration. Human molecular genetics 19, R46-R64 11.Strong, M. J., Volkening, K., Hammond, R., Yang, W., Strong, W., Leystra-Lantz, C., and Shoesmith, C. (2007) TDP43 is a human low molecular weight neurofilament ( h NFL) mRNA-binding protein. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 35, 320-327 12.Arai, T., Hasegawa, M., Akiyama, H., Ikeda, K., Nonaka, T., Mori, H., Mann, D., Tsuchiya, K., Yoshida, M., and Hashizume, Y. (2006) TDP-43 is a component of ubiquitin-positive tau-negative inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biochemical and biophysical research communications 351, 602-611 13.Mackenzie, I. R. (2007) The neuropathology of FTD associated with ALS. Alzheimer Disease Associated Disorders 21, S44-S49 14.Kabashi, E., Lin, L., Tradewell, M. L., Dion, P. A., Bercier, V., Bourgouin, P., Rochefort, D., Hadj, S. B., Durham, H. D., and Velde, C. V. (2010) Gain and loss of function of ALS-related mutations of TARDBP (TDP-43) cause motor deficits in vivo. Human molecular genetics 19, 671-683 15.Neumann, M. (2009) Molecular neuropathology of TDP-43 proteinopathies. International journal of molecular sciences 10, 232-246 16.Da Cruz, S., and Cleveland, D. W. (2011) Understanding the role of TDP-43 and FUS/TLS in ALS and beyond. Current opinion in neurobiology 21, 904-919 17.Kraemer, B. C., Schuck, T., Wheeler, J. M., Robinson, L. C., Trojanowski, J. Q., Lee, V. M., and Schellenberg, G. D. (2010) Loss of murine TDP-43 disrupts motor function and plays an essential role in embryogenesis. Acta neuropathologica 119, 409-419 18.Sephton, C. F., Good, S. K., Atkin, S., Dewey, C. M., Mayer, P., Herz, J., and Yu, G. (2010) TDP-43 is a developmentally regulated protein essential for early embryonic development. Journal of Biological Chemistry 285, 6826-6834

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Spot The Difference Attitudes towards people onwelfare benefit in the 19th and 21st centuries

To be clear on the people who receive welfare benefits, it is necessary to divide everyone into classes. Even if people refuse to admit they are in a ‘class' there are clear characteristics of what class they belong to. This division that is still active now, was even more operational in the 19th century. It was a way of life that the higher you were in the social class and hierarchy, then the more successful and prosperous you were to become in life. It was also some times a case of where you lived. It was Charles Booth that marked on maps of London where each social class lived. Places like Mile End Road and Orsman Road contained the ‘vicious poor', the people at the bottom of the hierarchy. They were labelled as; ‘The lowest class which consists of some occasional labourers, street sellers, loafers, criminals and semi-criminals. Their life is the life of savages, with vicissitudes of extreme hardship and their only luxury is drink.' Although this may seem that Booth is being ‘snobbish', it was noted that Booth had sympathy for the poor. He worked with the lower class, and reported that it wasn't always necessary to have money to be happy. He described that although the poor were more likely to die of disease and less likely to survive, he thought that they seemed to be happier, without nurses and servants etc. That the rich are more likely to suffer from being spoiled than from harshness, ‘that the simple natural lives of working-class people tend to their own and their children's happiness more than the artificial complicated existence of the risk.' Now in the 21st century, these locational divides are still in place, although the locations of the ‘vicious' poor have changed. While it is more noticeable in the 19th century maps, the upper class and lower class virtually side by side, it is possible that people were more willing to tolerate each other, nowadays there are more clear divisions. This change could be due to people's tolerance and attitude towards different classes. However, it seems more apparent that there are different attitudes towards social classes. Usually, people aren't willing to live near people of a lower class, places like council estates accommodate people of the same status, but they are prepared to pay taxes towards their welfare and benefits. During the 1800's the conditions of the workhouses, and the ‘relief' from the government or parishes was of little help. People still struggled to make ends meet. The rule was that no one got above the lowest workers wage, which was 12s to 15s a week. It was said that for a comfortable life, a worker needed a wage of 30s a week, concluding that few people had a comfortable life. In 1885, it was reported that 25% of the population lived in poverty, however, after Charles Booth investigated, and wrote Labour and Life of the People, he found that actually 35% of the population were in poverty. In simple terms, it was harder to receive help in the 19th century. Today there are fourteen types of benefits, including: benefits in kind for employees, child maintenance, council tax benefit, disability and carers benefits, housing benefit, incapacity benefit, income related benefits, invalid care allowance, mothers, widows and families benefits, retirement allowance, statutory sick pay, unemployment benefit, unfit for work benefits and war pensions and industrial injuries. While in the 19th century, it was an innovation to have the poor law, today there are 2.7 million people claiming incapacity benefit, and the government are trying to reduce this number. 1.610% of the population are on incapacity benefit; this is an immense difference from what it was in the 1800's. Although there are so many types of benefits, the government has become more active in getting people into work. The attitude of the government is that they need as many people in work as possible; they have introduced schemes such as EMA, something that would never have been thought of in the 19th century. People's attitude was that the government were doing something about the increasing poverty, at the expense of the economy. But why is the government making changes to benefits? The bottom line is that society has a responsibility to care for those unable to work. The government have introduced new schemes to prevent people from abusing benefits, the same thing that the government did in the 1800's when welfare was introduced. The changes proposed are likely to separate the seriously disabled or those suffering from terminal conditions such as cancer, who are unlikely ever to return to work, from those claiming to be incapacitated by a â€Å"bad back† or depression. People's attitudes have changed enormously from the 1800's to the present day. In the poor law days, going into the workhouse was shameful; people did as much as they could to prevent this, it was the lowest they could go. The workhouse conditions were terrible, starvation was often a common factor, families were separated and people's dignity and rights weren't an issue. People's attitudes today have changed a great deal over the years not because welfare benefits have changed, but because people's basic human rights have become more of a factor. It is expected that people who cant feed and look after themselves or their family, can receive help from the government. This way of thinking has developed partly from the original poor law. People started thinking that they needed to help others, even if it meant paying in taxes. Today, although people aren't ‘proud' of receiving benefit, it has become more acceptable; it is possible for people to stay on benefits their whole lives however, it costs the government à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½12 billion a year to fund benefits. This extra spending has been criticised by certain groups. There a lot of differences between 19th and 21st century welfare benefit. People's attitudes today mean that it is common for people to receive benefits. They know that they can fill in a form and receive at least à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½55 a week, not including child allowance. Today people can live just as well as people who work, which has caused some protest. While it seems that in the 19th century, welfare was a last resort, they didn't want to receive help, partly because the standard of help sometimes wasn't better than being left to starve. From old maps of London, it can been seen that people used to live close to others of different classes, while today, it is more likely that people move to places that are within the same income bracket. This displays another way that attitudes have changed, that people aren't willing to live near people who cannot support themselves, or they live near people of similar means. However, some similarities can be found, although it can be assumed that today attitudes have become more relaxed, today's government tries to remain vigilant as it was years ago. The government are aware of people mistreating the benefit, and so have chosen the attitude to fight those who misuse it. This could include imprisonment and fines etc. People had more of a superior attitude towards people on benefits in the 1800's, it was assumed by some that these poor were too lazy to work and the same can be said for today. But the underlying principle still remains, in the 19th century and 21st, welfare benefits are aimed to help people, and although people may have different feelings about those dependant on welfare, the benefits will still remain in place.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Dehumanization in Night Essay

Night is a heart pulling memoir of its young Jewish author, Ellie Weasel, and his experiences in the Holocaust. The book begins with him living in the town of Sighet. He had a very sheltered life, with no accounts of negativity in the world. He and his family were also raised heavily on Jewish beliefs. One day a man by the name of Moshe the beadle comes to warn the people of the dangers of the Nazis. Unfortunately the people did not heed this and Sighet was invaded by Nazis. Weasel and his family are taken and separated. He only had his father now and they braved much torture and mal treatment by the kapos in the camps. At the end of it all only weasel himself made it out alive, though a brutal scar was marked upon his soul. He’d lost his family and his faith at those camps. But through all his sorrow and loss he wanted to share his accounts in this dark volume of his life, so that people understand what the Jews went through all those years ago. This led him to write Night, where in which Weasel points out the inhumanity towards other humans during the holocaust as one of the themes of his chilling story. One of the major factors that contribute to this theme is actually one of the first cruel things he encountered was the Nazis. At first on the other had he didn’t see them for the monstrous people that they were. In the book Eliezer, Weasels character, even recalls, â€Å"Our first impressions of the Germans were most reassuring†¦. Their attitude toward their hosts was distant, but polite.† But this is just one of the many aspects of the holocaust that was tremendously misunderstood. But even more so unthinkable was the cold-blooded butchery of millions of innocent people. As the memoir progresses you will see how Weasel puts a spotlight of the actions of the Nazis by first seeing them as humans beings but then later on reveals the evil deeds that they commit upon innocent Jews. Night also exhibits how inhumanity can spread to others who have been shown inhumanity. This is shown when the Jews start to turn on each other, instead of braving their harsh treatment together. It is even said by a Kapo: â€Å"Here, every man has to fight for himself and not think of anyone else. . . . Here, there are no fathers, no brothers, no friends. Everyone lives and dies for himself alone.† Because the Kapo are also just prisoners that are in control of the other prisoners, this is a very significant message. They were happy to help the Nazis in their plans for genocide. This led them to act really ruthlessly towards those under their command. In the fifth section of the book Eliezer mentions them as being, â€Å"functionaries of death.† The perspective of the Kapos show how those effected by the Holocaust can use inhumanity to infect other people like it as a virus.